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SO2 emissions by explosive volcanic eruptions: 1979-2024.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) V2 catalogue: 2005-2022

A reference for more info about the V2 catalogue

Time series plots for 40 regions of the world. Updated daily. GRAY means Oil and Gas, RED means Power Plant, BLUE means Smelter, and ORANGE is a Volcano.

TOMS images (1979-2005) | AIRS images (2003-present) | OMI images (2004-present) | OMPS images (May 2012-present)

Global monthly OMI Boundary Layer SO2 maps

Global monthly OMPS Boundary Layer SO2 maps

L2 OMPS SO2 Data

Active Volcanism

Earthquakes, eruptions & emissions from the Global Volcanism Program (GVP) at the Smithsonian Institution.

Each week, Smithsonian's GVP publishes a report of new volcanic activity.

The SO2 data collected by AURA/OMI and Suomi NPP/OMPS for the new activity this week are shown below.

  Week of 29 May - 04 Jun 2024

Colombia - Ruiz & Sangay: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
DRCongo - Nyamuragira & Nyiragongo: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Halmahera - Dukono: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Hawaii - Kilauea: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Iceland - Reykjanes: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Italy - Etna: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Java - Merapi, Raung & Semeru: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Kamchatka - Klyuchevskoy, Mutnovsky & Sheveluch: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Mexico - Popocatepetl: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Papau New Guinea - Bagana, Langila, Manam & Ulawun: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Peru - Sabancaya: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Philippines - Mayon & Taal: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI
Sumatra - Marapi: OMI   OMPS   TROPOMI

Summary of Preliminary Tonnage estimates

Past Weeks Reports


Time series plots for 35 regions of the world. Updated daily.


Long-term volcanic SO2 emissions.




The SO2 mass for all significant explosive eruptions in our database (VEI 3+) was converted to sulfate mass in this plot using a typical SO2/sulfate mass ratio (assuming complete conversion of SO2 to sultate aerosol with composition 75 wt% H2SO4 - 25 wt% H2O). To simulate the decay of sulfate aerosol mass with time we assumed a fixed, latitude-dependent e-folding time.