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Sulfur Dioxide Image Galleries


TOMS images (1979-2005) | AIRS images (2003-present) | OMI images (2004-present) | OMPS images (May 2012-present)

OMI Volcanic SO2 Image Archive


This archive is not an exhaustive list of all volcanic emissions detected by OMI. Particularly large or otherwise interesting events will be posted here as time permits. This website under development by NOAA is providing near real-time OMI SO2 images of volcanic events.

Images presented in the SO2 column will typically display retrievals from the current operational SO2 algorithm. In some cases, offline experimental algorithms may be implemented. Units are milli-atm-cm, also known as Dobson Units (DU), where 1 milli-atm-cm = 1 DU = 2.68x1016 molecules cm-2 at STP (0o degs C, 1013.25 hPa). Images in the Ash/Aerosols column show the OMI Aerosol Index (AI), which is positive for UV-absorbing aerosols such as volcanic ash, and can be negative for non-UV absorbing aerosols such as sulfate. Note that the scale used varies between plots. For further information please contact us.

Choose a year:
2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016

Or select a volcano:


Volcano

Date

Daily images

Composites

Ash/Aerosols

Notes/Links

   ↓2016 ↓        
Aso, Japan Oct 8, 2016
Oct 8
 
 
Erupted Sat afternoon (10/8). About 10.08 kilo tons SO2.
Colima & Popocatepetl, Mexico Oct 1, 2016
Oct 1
 
 
Dueling eruptions!
   ↓2015 ↓        
Etna, Sicily, Italy Dec 4, 2015
OMI/OMPS/PCA Dec 4
 
 
Following a day of increased seismic activity, an eruption began at Mt. Etna on December 3, 2015. The eruption was characterized by lava fountaining between 1-2 km for two days and ash plumes between 7-8 km on December 4th. By december 5th, eruption activity was decreasing, with Strombolian and effusive activity continuing for a few days.
Calbuco, Chile Apr 22, 2015
Apr 24
Apr 23
Apr 24
Apr 25
Apr 26
Apr 27
 
Calbuco volcano, in central Chile, began erupting on April 22, 2015 at approximately 2138 UTC with a second eruption at 0408 UTC on April 23, 2015. AIRS and OMPS provided the best plume coverage for volcanic SO2 and mass estumates are 0.2 Tg and 0.24 Tg, respectively, in the first overpasses following the eruption. A CALIPSO overpass on April 23, 2015 shows that the plume reached an altitude of 17-19 km before being transported to the northeast towards Buenos Aires by ambient meteorology.
   ↓2014 ↓        
Cape Verde Islands Nov 24, 2014
Nov 24
Nov 27
Nov 28
Nov 28
Nov 29
 
 
Fogo began erupting on the morning of Nov 23. The eruption started at a vent on the WSW part of the cone. On the 24th, a sulfur dioxide cloud was observed 220 km NW of Fogo at an altitude of 9.1 km by the Toulouse VAAC. More detailed info here.
Pavlof, Alaska, USA Nov 15, 2014
Nov 15
 
 
The eruption that began on Nov 12 intensified on the 15th. Ash cloud at about 25,000 feet (about 7,600 m) above sea level and about 120 miles (196 km) downwind.
Bárðarbunga, Iceland Aug 31, 2014
Sep 1
 
 
Bárðarbunga (on Iceland) began erupting on Aug 31 between 0300-0445 UTC. The eruption occured 40 km N/NE of the central vent location. There was no ash dispersal associated with this event.
Kelut, Java, Indonesia Feb 13, 2014
Feb 14
15, 16, 17
OMI/OMPS/PCA
Feb 14
Feb 16
Feb 17
Feb 14
Feb 15
This eruption started Feb 13 between 16:15-16:30 UTC and stopped before 19 UTC. It was a mixture of gas, ash and water with a plume initially moving westward. OMI/OMPS estimated SO2 released: 150-300 kT (0.15-0.30 Tg), mostly during initial explosion. Very high ash loading detected on 14 Feb (UV Aerosol Index > 10). SO2 ash injection heights were 17-26 km with the bulk of injection at 19 km, estimated from the CALIPSO overpass at 18 UTC. An additional SO2 source was introduced on 02/17/2014, which mixed with the initial Kelut SO2 plume. Here is a more detailed explanation.
   ↓2013 ↓        
Etna, Sicily, Italy Nov 23, 2013
Nov 23
Dec 03
 
 
This eruption started Nov 23rd. There is a cloud over Europe. See OMPS images.
Pavlof, Alaska, USA May 6, 2012
May 20
 
 
Pavlof began erupting ong May 15th. local airline flights have been affected.
Manam, Papua, New Guinea May 6, 2012
Apr 16
 
 
New eruption on April 16th.
   ↓2012 ↓        
Nyamuragira, DR Congo May 6, 2012
May 6
May 6
 
New eruption on May 6th.
Etna, Sicily, Italy April 24, 2012
 
Apr 24
 
The 7th eruption this year. SO2 cloud over Iraq probably came from Etna.
Etna, Sicily, Italy Mar 4, 2012
Mar 4
Mar 4-7
 
Started erupting on March 4th. Eruption is continuing.
   ↓2011 ↓        
Nyamuragira, DR Congo Nov 7, 2011
Nov 7-13
 
 
Started erupting on November 4th. Eruption are continuing.
Puyehue - Cordon Caulle, Chile October 10, 2011
 
 
 
Puyehue - Cordon Caulle (in Chile) has been active recently, but no major activity. There has been significant ash causing problems downwind a few hundred kms, as far as Buenos Aires where flights were canceled.
Etna, Sicily, Italy August 12, 2011
Aug 12
 
 
In July and August, there have been several eruptions that were short, but intense enough to shut the airport and the highway due to the dust.
Nabro, Eritrea June 12, 2011
Jun 13

Jun 14

Jun 13
Jun 14
Jun 13 -
Jun 28

 
On June 13, OMI captured high SOs concentrations from the eruption of Nabro (Eritrea) on June 12th. Total tonnage is estimated to exceed 1Tg. The plume moved westward and the peak SO2 height was estimated to be 15-17 km (in the lower stratosphere). According to the Toulouse VAAC, the gas/ash/steam emissions at Nabro stopped around 15 UTC on 16 June.
Puyehue - Cordon Caulle, Chile June 5, 2011
 
Jun 5
Calypso east: Jul 9
Calypso west: Jul 9
Jun 5
Ash: Jun 28
AI: Jun 5-13
Jun 28
Puyehue - Cordon Caulle (in Chile) began erupting on June 4 at about 1800 UTC and lasted for about 2 weeks.
Grimsvotn, Iceland May 21, 2011
May 23
May 24
May22-Jun1
May21-Jun12
May 23
May 24
Grimsvotn (on Iceland) began erupting on May 21 at 1730 UTC. Lasted until May 26th.
   ↓2010 ↓        
Merapi, Indonesia October 29, 2010
Oct 29 - Nov 15
 
 
Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland April 21, 2010
Apr 19 - May 23
Apr 13 - May27
Apr19
May6 - May20
Eyjafjallajökull (on Iceland) began erupting on April 14th. The ash cloud released disrupted air travel in Europe and around the world.
   ↓2009 ↓        
Sarychev, Kuril Islands, RussianFederation June 12, 2009
Jun 12 - 27
Jun 12 - 27
 
The eruption started on June 12th sending ash plumes in 2 directions.
Redoubt, Alaska March 23, 2009
Mar 23 - 25
Mar 23
Mar 23 - 24
The eruption started on March 22nd, around 2238 local (0638 GMT). The composite is a composite of Calispo and OMI data.
   ↓2008 ↓        
Kasatochi, Aleutian Islands, Alaska August 8, 2008
Aug 08 - 13
 
 
The eruption started on August 7th.
Okmok, Aleutian Islands, Alaska July 12, 2008
Jul 12 - 20
Jul 12-20
 
The eruption started on July 12th.
Cerro Azul, Galápagos Islands May 30, 2008
May 30 - Jun 10
 
 
The eruption started on May 29th.
Chaitén, Chile May 2, 2008
May 03 - 09
May 2
May 2-9
The eruption started on May 2nd.
Llaima, Chile Jan 1, 2008
 
Jan 2-4
 
Llaima erupted on the evening of Jan 1. According to the Buenos Aires VAAC, the resulting ash cloud reached an altitude of 12.5 km (41,000 ft). On Jan 4, the volcanic SO2 cloud drifted over Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic.
   ↓2007 ↓        
Jebel al-Tair, Yemen Sep 30, 2007
Oct 1 - 11
 
 
The first eruption of this Red Sea volcano since 1883. The images show the long-range transport of the SO2 cloud by the subtropical jet stream.
Chikurachki, Kurile Islands Aug 19, 2007
Aug 19-21
 
Aug 19-21
Chikurachki began erupting on August 19th.
Manda Hararo, Afar, Ethiopia Aug 12, 2007
Aug 13 - 14
 
 
An eruption close to Manda Hararo volcano in western Afar.
Gamkorona, Halmahera Indonesia Jul 9, 2007
Jul 9-10
 
Jul 9-10
Chikurachki began erupting on July 9th.
Lopevi, Vanuatu Apr 21, 2007 Cumulative:
Apr 21-29
Average:
Apr 21-29
 
Apr 21-29
The eruption of Lopevi on Vanuatu in the SW Pacific.
Piton de la Fournaise, Réunion Apr 03, 2007
Apr 03 - 09
 
 
The eruption of Piton de la Fournaise.
Sheveluch (Shiveluch), Kamchatka, Russia Mar 29, 2007
Mar 29
 
AI - Mar 29
See SO2 and ash from Sheveluch and SO2 from 2 other volcanoes further south in spite of looking through 500 DU of ozone.
Popocatépetl, Mexico Mar 24, 2007
Mar 24 - 26
 
Not available presently
Plumes with < 1000 tons of SO2. No emissions from Colima.
Reventador, Ecuador Mar 21, 2007
Mar 21 - 29
 
Not available presently
Tonnages range from 300 to about 1200. Note that not all color ranges are the same.
Chikurachki, Kurile Islands Mar 04, 2007
Mar 4-5
 
Mar 4-5
Chikurachki began erupting on March 4th.
Tungurahua, Ecuador Mar 02, 2007
Mar 2 - 13
 
Not available presently
Continued and steady emissions from Tungurahua.
Nevado del Huila, Colombia Feb 19, 2007
Feb 19-21
 
Feb 19-21
Nevado del Huila's eruption began on Feb 19th. Data at 5km.
Tara Batu, Lesser Sunda Islands Feb 14, 2007
Feb 14
 
Feb 14
Tara Batu eruption began on Jan 17th. Data at 3km.
Karthala, Comores Islands Jan 13, 2007
Jan 13
 
Jan 13
Karthala's eruption began on Jan 12th until Jan 15. Data at 3km.
   ↓2006 ↓        
Nyamuragira, DR Congo Nov 27, 2006
Nov 28 - Dec 8
Nov 28 -
Dec 4
Not available presently
Erupted around 1000 on November 27th. Daily images from Nov 28 to Dec 8. Large quantities of SO2 emitted.
Ambrym, Vanuatu Nov 8, 2006
Nov 08 - 18
 
Nov 08 - 15
About 1 kton of SO2 with a couple of outgassing evants during this time.
Rabaul, Papua New Guinea Oct 7, 2006
Oct 07 - 18
Oct 07 - 09
Not available presently
The eruption shook windows and rained heavy ash and small stones on the city of Rabaul. QT movie (1.9 Mb)
Fourpeaked, Alaska Sept 17, 2006
Sep 17 - 18
 
Not available presently
First historical activity at Fourpeaked.
Rabaul, Papua New Guinea Aug 11, 2006
Aug 11
 
Aug 11
0.23 ktons of SO2.
Tungurahua, Ecuador Aug 02, 2006
Aug 02 - 10
 
Not available presently
Typical emissions from Tungurahua on the 2nd, pulsed emissions on the 4th, reduced emissions afterwards.
Tungurahua, Ecuador Jul 27, 2006
Jul 27 - 31
 
Not available presently
Possible cloud interference is hiding some of the plume in these images.
Piton de la Fournaise, Réunion Island Jul 20, 2006
Jul 20
 
Jul 20
Data are from 3 km. 0.32 ktons of SO2.
Tungurahua, Ecuador Jul 13, 2006
Jul 13 - 17
 
AI - Jul 15
refl - Jul 15
No new SO2 from Galeras on the 13th. Tungurahua emitting 7-10x more SO2 than usual.
Galeras, Colombia Jul 08, 2006
Jul 08 - 12
 
Not available presently
First large burst of SO2 over the last two months.
Tungurahua, Ecuador Jul 03, 2006
Jul 03 - 10
 
Not available presently
Looks like wind reversal on the 7th. Galeras burst on the 8th.
Tungurahua, Ecuador Jun 21, 2006
Jun 21
 
Not available presently
Tungurahua continuing to put out SO2. 0.53 ktons of SO2.
Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies May 20, 2006
May 20 - Jun 11
 
Not available presently
The dome collapsed sending a volcanic plume to 20km that suspended air traffic temporarily. QT movie (3.2 Mb)
Tungurahua, Ecuador May 11, 2006
May 11 - 18
 
Not available presently
Tungurahua continuing to put out SO2. Some images near edge of swath. SO2 mass ranging from 0.18 ktons on the 17th to 1.04 ktons on the 14th.
Láscar, Chile Apr 18, 2006
Apr 18
 
Apr 18
Láscar erupted on April 18. Data are from 5 km. 0.75 ktons of SO2.
Ubinas, Peru Mar 25, 2006
 
Mar 26-29
Mar 26-29
Ubinas erupted onMarch 25. No images are shown because the OMI data seem to show that the SO2 present seem to be from the nearby smelter. Data are at 3km.
Ulawun, New Britain Mar 1, 2006
 
Feb 13
Feb 13
Data are from 3 km.
Tinakula, Santa Cruz, Solomon Islands Feb 13, 2006
Feb 13
 
Feb 13
Data are from 3 km. 0.76 ktons of SO2.
   ↓2005 ↓        
Sierra Negra, Galápagos Islands Oct 22, 2005
Oct 23 -
Nov 1
Oct 23 -
Nov 1
Not available presently
The SO2 mass for these days were: 23 - 418.31 kt over 991,415 km2, 24 - 492.14 over 3,848,199 km2, 25 - 413.39 kt over 5,913,587 km2, 26 - 502.47 kt over 7,258,753 km2, 27 - 365.37 kt over 7,674,519 km2, 28 - 386.37 kt over 5,974,922 km2, 29 - 321.01 over 5,912,643 km2, 30 - 238.10 kt over 5,860,779 km2, 31 - 142.69 kt over 4,796,982 km2, 1 - 74.21 kt over 3,674,469 km2.
Soufrière Hills, Montserrat, West Indies Apr 20, 2005
Apr 20
 
Apr 20
Erupted April 15th. SO2 mass is 40 tons over 1,777 km2. Data are at 3 km.
Anatahan, Mariana Islands Apr 5, 2005
Apr 6 - 10
 
Not available presently
The SO2 mass for these days were: 6 - 90.41 kt over 1,111,937 km2, 7 - 109.76 over 3,021,930 km2, 8 - 85.56 kt over 4,281,157 km2, 9 - 59.03 kt over 3,130,787 km2, 10 - 46.63 kt over 3,846,634 km2.
  Manam, Papua New Guinea Jan 27, 2005
Jan 28 - 31
Jan 28 - 31
Not available presently
The SO2 mass for these days were: 28 - 149.84 kt over 1,469,994 km2, 29 - 112.29 over 3,797,061 km2, 30 - 90.88 kt over 4,157,543 km2, 31 - 56.05 kt over 4,092,286 km2.
 Popocatépetl, Mexico Jan 10, 2005
Jan 10
 
Jan 10
Poppcatépetl began erupting on Jan 9. SO2 mass was 250 tons over an area of 10,865 km2.
   ↓2004 ↓        
Manam, Papua New Guinea Oct 31, 2004
Oct 31 - Nov 1
 
Not available presently
SO2 mass for 10/31 was 14.52 ktons over an area of 95,184 km2. The mass for 11/1 was 15.68 ktons over 450,000 km2.
Manam, Papua New Guinea Oct 24, 2004
Oct 24 - 25
Oct 24 - 25
Oct 24
SO2 mass for 10/24 was 9.59 ktons over an area of 51,471 km2. The mass for 10/25 was 4.47 ktons over 216,413 km2.

OMI launched on board AURA July 15, 2004