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Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory (Code 614)

Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Galleries

Sulfur Dioxide Image Galleries


TOMS images (1979-2005) | AIRS images (2003-present) | OMI images (2004-present) | OMPS images (May 2012-present)

TOMS Volcanic Image Archive


This database of eruptions observed by the TOMS instruments is undergoing construction. The list of eruptions observed by TOMS since 1978 is up-to-date, and images will be added as they are processed so check back regularly. New eruptions will be added as and when they are discovered. The database currently contains 274 eruptive events from 70 volcanoes.

Images presented in the SO2 column display retrievals from either the current (version 8) operational algorithm (Sulfur Dioxide Index or SOI) or a more accurate iterative retrieval algorithm (Iterative SO2) which is implemented offline. Units are Milli atm cm, also known as Dobson Units (DU), where 1 Milli atm cm = 1 DU = 10 ppmm at STP. Images in the Ash/Aerosols column show the TOMS Aerosol Index (AI), which is positive for UV-absorbing aerosols such as volcanic ash, and negative for non-UV absorbing aerosols such as sulfate. Note that the scale used varies between plots. A triangular symbol marks the location of the source volcano. For further information please contact us.

Choose a year:
1979 | 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1983 | 1984 | 1985 | 1986 | 1987 | 1988 | 1989 | 1990 | 1991 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 1996 | 1997 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005

Or select a volcano:
Or select a region:


Volcano

Date

SO2

Ash/Aerosols

Days tracked

Notes/Links

Sierra Negra, Galápagos Islands

Oct 22, 2005

Oct 23-26

None detected

4 (to date)

The first activity at Sierra Negra since its large eruption in November 1979.

Anatahan, Mariana Islands

Apr 6, 2005

Apr6

Apr6

1

This eruption, though not particularly large, was notable for producing a very dense ash cloud (note the very high AI values in the AI image). However, note that the TOMS version 8 AI used here is higher than the old version 7 AI.

Manam, Papua New Guinea

Nov 2004 -
Jan 2005

Nov 11 -
Jan 28


5 (to date)

Continuous activity, including some powerful Strombolian eruptions, beginning at Manam in October 2004, have produced several significant SO2 clouds. The eruption column rose to 17-18 km on Nov 24, and maybe to 21-24 km on Jan 28, 2005. Further details are available on the Darwin VAAC website.

Ambrym, Vanuatu

Oct 7, 2004

Oct 7


16 (to date)

SO2 degassing from Ambrym was apparent throughout September and into October. A relatively large plume was detected on 7 October.

Asama, Japan

Sep 15, 2004

Sep 15


1

SO2 emissions during activity at Asama in mid-September.

Bromo, Indonesia

Jun 9, 2004

Jun 9-10

None detected

2

SO2 clouds generated by a small explosive eruption on June 8.

Nyamuragira, DR Congo

May 8, 2004

May 8 -
Jun 8

May 10

31 (to date)

SO2 cloud first observed at 1056 local time on May 8; the eruption began around 0548 local time. Some SO2 may be sourced from Nyiragongo, which is also currently active. There was a data gap over the region on May 9. AIRS images of this eruption are also available.

Soputan, Indonesia

Sep 1, 2003



1

Gas plume from Soputan - MODIS image available on Darwin VAAC website.

Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

Jul 12, 2003

Jul 13-14


3

This SO2 cloud was produced by explosions at the climax of a major dome collapse on July 12.

Lopevi, Vanuatu

Jun 8, 2003

Jun 9

None detected

1

A small explosive eruption began at Lopevi on June 8. TOMS detected an SO2 cloud W of Fiji on June 9.

Anatahan, Mariana Islands

May 10, 2003

May 11 -
Jun 3

May 11-13

10

TOMS data gaps hampered detection of the early phase of this eruption, but significant SO2 and ash emissions were detected on subsequent days. No EP TOMS data were available from May 15-23. From May 24, continued emissions were detected.

Nyiragongo, DR Congo

Apr-June 2003

May 3 -
Jun 5

None detected

~23

Significant SO2 emissions from Nyiragongo have been detected since late April.

Vanuatu

Jan 2003

Jan 8-12

None detected

~3

TOMS detected a small SO2 cloud over Vanuatu on January 8, indicating a possible small eruption or degassing episode. The source volcano has yet to be identified, though the cloud was observed in the vicinity of Lopevi and Ambrym (Lopevi is marked on the images).

Nyiragongo, DR Congo

Jan 2003

Jan 2-10

None detected

~7

SO2 from Nyiragongo was still perceptible in TOMS data until mid-January.

Nyiragongo, DR Congo

Dec 2002

Dec 5-31

None detected

~17

Degassing from Nyiragongo became visible once again in TOMS data around December 3 (see below for images from October-November). Data gaps occur over Nyiragongo every other day.

Piton de la Fournaise, Réunion

Nov 16, 2002

Nov 17

None detected

1

Piton de la Fournaise erupted on November 16. A small SO2 plume was observed by TOMS on Nov 17.

Papandayan, Indonesia

Nov 11, 2002

Nov 15

None detected

2

Papandayan began erupting on November 11. Small amounts of SO2 were observed by TOMS on Nov 13 and 15. GMS-5 visible images of the volcanic cloud on Nov 15 can be viewed on the Darwin VAAC website.

El Reventador, Ecuador

Nov 3, 2002

Nov 3-24

Nov 3-4

17

Local times of TOMS overpasses are shown. The TOMS swath was not ideally placed for detection of the Reventador eruption cloud on Nov 3, but some SO2 and ash was seen, with the SO2 signal being more extensive at the time of the overpass. On Nov 4, TOMS detected several distinct SO2 masses and an ash cloud - note separation of the ash and gas.

Etna, Italy

Oct 27, 2002

Oct 27-29

Oct 27 - Nov 3

8

EP TOMS detected SO2 and ash associated with the latest eruption of Mt. Etna in Sicily. This eruption has produced stronger signals in the TOMS data than the July-August 2001 eruption, suggesting that the October 2002 plume may have reached higher altitudes. Check out MODIS images of the eruption on the NASA Earth Observatory website.

Nyiragongo, DR Congo

Oct-Nov, 2002

Oct 8 -
Nov 15

None detected

~24

Intense degassing from Nyiragongo became visible in TOMS data around October 7, continuing through October and November.

Ruang, Indonesia

Sep 25, 2002

Sep 26

Sep 26

1

The TOMS overpass on Sep 25 was too early to capture the fresh eruption cloud, but ash and SO2 were evident on the following day. The aerosol signal over S Borneo is at least partly due to smoke from biomass burning; the ash cloud from Ruang can be seen over NE Borneo. A data gap may be obscuring any SO2 or ash immediately west of Ruang.

Nyamuragira, DR Congo

Jul 26, 2002

Jul 26 -
Aug 2

None detected

8

SO2 cloud first detected at 1138 local time on Jul 26. Some SO2 may be sourced from Nyiragongo. A MODIS image of the July 26 cloud can be seen on the NASA Earth Observatory website. EP TOMS unfortunately entered safe hold mode on August 2, prematurely curtailing tracking of this eruption. No further SO2 was detected when data collection resumed on August 13.

Nyiragongo, DR Congo

Jan 17, 2002

Jan 17

None detected

1

SO2 cloud detected at around 1100 local time on Jan 17.

Bezymianny, Kamchatka

Aug 7, 2001

None detected

Aug 7 (1158)

1

Local time of TOMS overpass indicated.

Tungurahua, Ecuador

Aug 6, 2001

Aug 6

Aug 6

1


Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

Jul 30, 2001

Jul 30

None detected

1

Cloud produced by a lava dome collapse on July 29.

Shiveluch, Kamchatka

May 22, 2001

None detected

May 22 (1128-1307)

1

Local times of TOMS overpasses indicated.

Ulawun, Papua New Guinea

Apr 30, 2001

Apr 30

None detected

2

Data gap over volcano. See visible images of the eruption cloud courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Popocatépetl, Mexico

Apr 29, 2001

Apr 29

Apr 29

1


Cleveland, Aleutian Islands

Mar 19, 2001

None detected


1


Cleveland, Aleutian Islands

Mar 11, 2001

None detected

Mar 11

1


Cleveland, Aleutian Islands

Feb 19, 2001

Feb 19

Feb 19

1


Nyamuragira, D.R. Congo

Feb 2001

Feb 6 -
Mar 7

Feb 6-11

~25

AI images suggest sulfate aerosol production (negative AI).

Popocatépetl, Mexico

Dec 19, 2000

Dec 19-21

Dec 19

2

Data gap over region on Dec 20.

Popocatépetl, Mexico

Dec 15, 2000

Dec 15

None detected

1


Ulawun, Papua New Guinea

Sep 28, 2000

Sep 28-30

Sep 28

2

No data available over PNG on Sep 29 due to a data gap. Visible images of the eruption cloud courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Miyakejima, Japan

Aug 2000

Aug 19 - Sep 14

Ozone: Aug 18-28

Aug 19-29

14

Separation of SO2 and ash evident in Aug 19 cloud. An airliner encountered the Aug 19 ash cloud in flight and sustained US$4 million in damage. Ozone anomalies on Aug 18, 24 and 28 indicate SO2 emissions.

Láscar, Chile

Jul 20, 2000

None detected

Jul 20

1

Ash from a short eruption on July 20. A data gap truncates the eastward extent of the cloud.

Hekla, Iceland

Feb 27-29, 2000

Feb 27-29

Feb 27-28

~3

As the cloud drifted near the light terminator the retrievals were cut off. Extensive sulfate aerosol signal associated with the cloud.

Nyamuragira, D.R. Congo

Jan - Feb 2000

Jan 28 -
Feb 10

None detected

~18


Tungurahua, Ecuador

Nov 16, 1999


Nov 16

1


Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

Jul 20, 1999

Jul 20

Jul 20

1

Cloud produced by a lava dome collapse on July 20. Separation of SO2 and ash evident.

Shishaldin, Aleutian Islands

Apr 19, 1999

Apr 19-21

Apr 19

3

No further ash detected after April 19.

Mt Cameroon, Cameroon

Mar 28, 1999

Mar 30 -
Apr 2

None detected

4

First detection by TOMS (March 30) followed the opening of a new set of fissure vents on the volcano, which produced a voluminous lava flow.

Popocatépetl, Mexico

Nov 25, 1998

Nov 25

None detected

1


Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

Nov 12, 1998


None detected

1

Cloud produced by a lava dome collapse on November 12.

Nyamuragira, D.R. Congo

Oct 1998

Oct 17-31

Oct 18-28

~15

AI images show sulfate aerosol production.

Manam, Papua New Guinea

Oct 5, 1998

Oct 5

None detected

1

Visible images of eruption plume courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Cerro Azul, Galápagos Islands

Sep - Oct 1998

Sep 16 -
Oct 15

Sep 16 -
Oct 11

~25

GOES Vis/IR images of initial eruption. Note that sunglint over the ocean can also produce positive Aerosol Index values.

Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

Jul 3, 1998

Jul 3

None detected

1

Cloud produced by a lava dome collapse early in the morning of July 3.

Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

Dec 26, 1997

Dec 26

Dec 26

1

Separation of SO2 and ash evident.

Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

Aug - Oct 1997

Ozone: Oct19

Aug 8 - Oct 19


Ash from Vulcanian explosions during Aug and Sept/Oct 1997. Ozone data indicate a possible SO2 cloud on Oct 19.

Popocatépetl, Mexico

Jul 3, 1997

Jul 3

None detected

1



ADEOS satellite fails June 29, 1997

Bezymianny, Kamchatka

May 8, 1997

None detected

ADEOS:
May 7-9

Earth Probe:
May 7-10

~2-3


Langila, Papua New Guinea

Feb 1997


ADEOS: Feb 14

1


Manam, Papua New Guinea

Feb 8-11, 1997

ADEOS Ozone: Feb 9-11

Earth Probe Ozone: Feb 9

ADEOS: Feb 10

3

ADEOS overpasses precede Earth Probe by ~1 hour. Ozone anomalies on Feb 9 and 11 are suggestive of weak SO2 clouds from Manam.

Nyamuragira, D.R. Congo

Dec 1996

ADEOS: Dec 1-13

Earth Probe:
Dec 2-14

ADEOS: Dec 1-15

Earth Probe:
Dec 2-14

17

ADEOS overpasses precede Earth Probe by ~1 hour. Negative Aerosol Index indicates sulfate aerosol production.


ADEOS TOMS activated Sep 11, 1996


Earth Probe TOMS activated Jul 15, 1996


No TOMS operating 28 Dec 1994 - 15 July 1996


Meteor-3 TOMS mission ends Dec 28, 1994

Merapi, Java

Nov 22, 1994

None detected

Nov 23

1

Ash cloud generated by a large dome collapse on Nov 22.

Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka

Oct 1, 1994

Oct 1

Oct 1

1

Converging orbits at high latitudes produce 2 TOMS overpasses of Kliuchevskoi on Oct 1. Time between overpasses is ~1.7 hours.

Rabaul, Papua New Guinea

Sep 19, 1994

Sep 19-24

Sep 19-21

~6

Visible/IR images of eruption plumes courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Nyamuragira, Zaire

Jul 1994

Jul 5-10

Jul 7-10

~14

AI images indicate sulfate aerosol production.

Rinjani, Indonesia

Jun-Aug, 1994

Jul 18

Jul 2

~17

Visible/IR images of eruption plumes courtesy of Darwin VAAC.


Nimbus-7 TOMS mission ends May 6, 1993

Shiveluch, Kamchatka

Apr 22, 1993

Meteor-3: Apr22

Meteor-3:
Apr 22-23

2?


Láscar, Chile

Apr 18, 1993

Nimbus-7: Apr 20-21

Meteor-3: Apr 19-21

Nimbus-7:
Apr 19-29

Meteor-3:
Apr 19-30


Nimbus-7 overpasses precede Meteor-3 by 3-4 hours.

Mt. Spurr, Alaska

Sep 16, 1992

Nimbus-7:
Sep 17 (1047)

Meteor-3: Sep 17-18

Nimbus-7:
Sep 17 (1047)

Meteor-3:
Sep 17-18

5

Times (Alaskan time) of TOMS overpasses are given in brackets.

Mt. Spurr, Alaska

Aug 18, 1992

Nimbus-7: Aug 19 (1051)

Meteor-3: Aug 18-19

Nimbus-7:
Aug 19 (1051)

Meteor-3:
Aug 18

8

Times (Alaskan time) of TOMS overpasses are given in brackets. Note that Meteor-3 overpasses were late in the day, precluding accurate SO2 retrievals due to low light levels.

Mt. Spurr, Alaska

Jun 27, 1992

Nimbus-7: Jun 27-29

Meteor-3: Jun 27-29

Nimbus-7:
Jun 27-29

Meteor-3:
Jun 27-29

6

Times (Alaskan time) of TOMS overpasses are given in brackets. Due to the high latitude of the volcanic cloud, it was detected in several TOMS orbits on each day.

Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

Apr 1992

No significant amounts detected

Nimbus-7:
Apr 10-15

Meteor-3:
Apr 10-15

6

Meteor-3 overpasses precede Nimbus-7 by several hours.

Marchena, Galápagos Islands

Sep 26, 1991

Nimbus-7: Sep 26-28

Nimbus-7: Sep 26

3

Possible sulfate signal in AI image on Sep 26. Most Meteor-3 overpasses of Marchena were too early in the day to be of any use for this eruption.

Nyamuragira, Zaire

Sep 1991 - Jul 1992



~32



Meteor-3 TOMS activated Aug 22, 1991

Cerro Hudson, Chile

Aug 1991

Aug 9

Aug 9



Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines

Jun 12 - 19, 1991

Jun 12-24

Ash:
Jun 12-18

Sulfate:
Jun 17-24

~60

The 1991 Pinatubo eruption is the largest seen by TOMS to date. These images document the precursory explosions (June 12-14) that occurred prior to the paroxysmal eruption on June 15 (which were significant events themselves), the enormous SO2 and ash clouds produced on June 15 (seen in the June 16 image), and the first week of transport of the SO2 cloud around the globe.

Fernandina, Galápagos Islands

Apr 19, 1991

Apr 20-24

Apr 20

5

Weak ash signal seen over Fernandina on April 20.

Hekla, Iceland

Jan 17, 1991

Jan 20-25

None detected

6

The eruption cloud was north of the terminator in the polar night region for the first few days of atmospheric residence, then it moved south across Russia and was detected by TOMS near the Black Sea.

Gamalama, Indonesia

Apr 25, 1990

None detected


1


Redoubt, Alaska

Feb-Apr 1990

Mar 9

Feb 15 -
Apr 21


TOMS detected several of the explosive lava dome destruction events that occurred during Redoubt's 6-month eruption.

Kelut, Indonesia

Feb 10, 1990

Feb 11

Feb 11-12

2

Infrared images of eruption plume courtesy of Darwin VAAC. AI images show sunglint features over Indian Ocean (Feb 11, 12) and off N. Australia (Feb 12).

Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka

Jan 29, 1990



4


Redoubt, Alaska

Jan 1990

None detected

Jan 8

1

TOMS detected several of the explosive lava dome destruction events that occurred during Redoubt's 6-month eruption.

Redoubt, Alaska

Dec 14, 1989

Dec 16

None detected


Due to low light levels in Alaska in the N. Hemisphere winter, TOMS was unable to detect this cloud until it moved into lower latitudes.

Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

Sep 1, 1989

Sep 1


1


Nyamuragira, Zaire

Apr - May 1989

Apr 27


~28


Ambrym, Vanuatu

Apr 24, 1989

Apr 24 - May 10

None detected

6


Soputan, Indonesia

Apr 22, 1989

None detected


1


Pacaya, Guatemala

Mar 9, 1989

None detected


2


Lonquimay, Chile

Dec 25, 1988 January 25, 1989


Dec 27 -
Jan 25


Two overpasses available for some days due to overlapping TOMS orbits at these latitudes.

Fernandina, Galápagos Islands

Sep 14, 1988

Sep 15

Sep 15-17

5

Along with SO2, some ash from phreatic explosions was also detected.

Makian, Indonesia

Jul 29, 1988

Jul 30 -
Aug 5

Jul 29 -
Aug 5

~7

Visible/IR images of July 29 eruption plume courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Banda Api, Indonesia

May 9, 1988

May 9-11

May 9-10

3

Visible image of May 9 eruption plume courtesy of Darwin VAAC.

Nyamuragira, Zaire

Dec 1987 - Jan 1988

Dec 31 -
Jan 1


2


Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka

Feb 19, 1987



1


Chikurachki, Kurile Islands

Nov - Dec 1986





Izu-Oshima, Japan

Nov 1986

Nov 19

None detected

1

SOI and AI images of plumes from Oshima and Chikurachki (Kurile Islands) on the same day. Oshima produced little (if any) detectable ash.

Ambrym, Vanuatu

Nov 1, 1986




SO2 degassing from Ambrym.

Nyamuragira, Zaire

July 16, 1986

Jul 20


~13


Kilauea, Hawaii

Jun 27, 1986


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 47 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jun 2, 1986


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 46 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

May 8, 1986


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 45 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Pavlof, Alaska

Apr 16, 1986





Kilauea, Hawaii

Apr 14, 1986


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 44 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Augustine, Alaska

Mar 27, 1986





Kilauea, Hawaii

Mar 22, 1986


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 43 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Feb 23, 1986


None detected

1

SO2 emissions from Episode 42 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jan 28, 1986


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 41 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jan 2, 1986


None detected

1

SO2 emissions from Episode 40 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Ulawun, Papua New Guinea

Nov 20, 1985





Kilauea, Hawaii

Nov 14, 1985


None detected

1

SO2 emissions from Episode 39 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

Nov 13, 1985

Nov 14

Nov 14


Marked separation of SO2 and ash components in the volcanic cloud.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Oct 21, 1985


None detected

4

SO2 emissions from Episode 38 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Sep 25, 1985


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 37 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

Sep 11, 1985





Kilauea, Hawaii

Sep 3, 1985


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 36 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka

Aug 16, 1985





Sangeang Api, Indonesia

Jul 30, 1985

None detected

Jul 31

1


Kilauea, Hawaii

Jul 26, 1985


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 35 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jul 7, 1985


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 34 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jun 13, 1985


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 33 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Bezymianny, Kamchatka

Jun 12, 1985





Soputan, Indonesia

May 20, 1985

May 20

May 20-21

2

A jumbo jet en route from Hong Kong to Sydney encountered the ash cloud on 20 May at 0058 .

Kilauea, Hawaii

Apr 22, 1985


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 32 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Mar 14, 1985


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 31 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Canlaon, Philippines

Mar 13, 1985





Kilauea, Hawaii

Feb 4, 1985


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 30 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Heard Island

Jan 14, 1985





Kilauea, Hawaii

Jan 4, 1985


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 29 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Dec 4, 1984


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 28 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Bezymianny, Kamchatka

Nov 13, 1984



1


Kilauea, Hawaii

Nov 3, 1984


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 26 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Sep 20, 1984


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 25 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Mayon, Philippines

Sep 9, 1984

Sep 23-25


4


Krafla, Iceland

Sep 4, 1984

Sep 5-18

None detected

11

Times (local) of TOMS overpasses given in brackets for days with 2 images.

Soputan, Indonesia

Aug 31, 1984

Aug 31 -
Sep 1

Aug 31 -
Sep 1

2

 

Kilauea, Hawaii

Aug 20, 1984


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 24 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jul 29, 1984


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 23 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jul 9, 1984


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 22 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jul 1, 1984


None detected

1

SO2 emissions from Episode 21 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Merapi, Java

Jun 15, 1984

None detected


1


Kilauea, Hawaii

Jun 8, 1984


None detected

1

SO2 emissions from Episode 20 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Soputan, Indonesia

May 24-26, 1984

May 26

May 26-27

2


Kilauea, Hawaii

Apr 19, 1984


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 18 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Fernandina, Galápagos Islands

Mar - Apr 1984

Apr 1

None detected

6


Mauna Loa, Hawaii

Mar - Apr 1984

Mar 25 -
Apr 3


15


Kilauea, Hawaii

Mar 4, 1984


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 16 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Nyamuragira, Zaire

Feb - Mar 1984

Feb 24 - Mar 6


~11


Kilauea, Hawaii

Feb 15, 1984


None detected

1

SO2 emissions from Episode 15 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jan 31, 1984


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 14 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jan 21, 1984


None detected

1

SO2 emissions from Episode 13 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Pavlof, Alaska

Dec 15, 1983

None detected


1


Kilauea, Hawaii

Nov 30, 1983


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 12 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Pavlof, Alaska

Nov 14, 1983





Kilauea, Hawaii

Nov 6, 1983


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 11 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Oct 5, 1983


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 10 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Sep 16, 1983


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 9 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Sep 6, 1983


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 8 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Aug 16, 1983


None detected

2

SO2 emissions from Episode 7 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Gamalama, Indonesia

Aug 9, 1983



1

Partial separation of ash and SO2 in the volcanic cloud.

Colo, Indonesia

Jul - Aug 1983


Jul 24 -
Aug 26

~12


Kilauea, Hawaii

Jul 23, 1983


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 6 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jun 30, 1983


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 5 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Mar 31, 1983


None detected

11

SO2 emissions from Episode 3 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Feb 25, 1983


None detected

3

SO2 emissions from Episode 2 of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption.

Kilauea, Hawaii

Jan 3, 1983


None detected

3

SO2 emissions at the beginning of the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption on Kilauea's East Rift Zone.

Soputan, Indonesia

Nov 9, 1982

Nov 10

Nov 10-11

3


Lopevi, Vanuatu

Oct 24, 1982

Oct 25

Oct 25

1


Mt Cameroon, Cameroon

Oct 16, 1982

Oct 18

None detected

1


Soputan, Indonesia

Sep 16-18, 1982


Sep 17-19

3

Soputan is not the only source of aerosols in these images. At this time, forest fires in Kalimantan were also producing a veil of smoke over central Indonesia. Galunggung (west Java) was also erupting, producing an ash cloud visible on September 19.

Volcan Wolf, Galápagos Islands

Aug 28, 1982

Aug 28 - Sep 8


12

The eruption started on the afternoon of August 28.

Soputan, Indonesia

Aug 26, 1982

Aug 27

Aug 27-28



Galunggung, Indonesia

May - Sep 1982

Jun 25

Jun 25



El Chichón, Mexico

Mar - Apr 1982

Mar 29 -
Apr 3

Mar 29 -
Apr 5

~32

The March-April 1982 eruptions of El Chichón produced several vast SO2 and ash clouds. The largest explosive events of the eruption occurred on March 28, April 3 and April 4. The April 4 event was the paroxysmal phase of the eruption, and the resulting SO2 cloud was tracked for several weeks as it circled the globe. All of the clouds show some degree of separation of ash and SO2.

Nyamuragira, Zaire

Dec 1981 - January 1982

Dec 26-29, Dec 28


~16


Vanuatu

Jul 8, 1981




SO2 degassing from either Ambrym or Lopevi (probably Ambrym).

Pagan, Mariana Islands

May 15, 1981

May 15

May 15

2


Alaid, Kurile Islands

Apr - May 1981

Apr 27 -
May 2

Apr 27 -
May 2

8


Hekla, Iceland

Apr 9, 1981

Apr 10-11

None detected

2


Pavlof, Alaska

Nov 11, 1980

None detected


1


Krafla, Iceland

Oct 18, 1980

Oct 19-23

None detected

5


Mt. St. Helens, Washington

Oct 17, 1980

None detected

Oct 17

1

One of a series of lava dome destruction events at Mt St Helens after dome growth commenced in June 1980.

Ulawun, Papua New Guinea

Oct 6, 1980





Etna, Italy

Sep 1, 1980

Sep 2


2


Etna, Italy

Sep 6, 1980

Sep 6

None detected

1


Hekla, Iceland

Aug 17, 1980

Aug 18

Polar projections:
Aug 18-23

Aug 18

6

Times (UTC) of overpasses are given in brackets. Local time in Iceland is the same as UTC. This was a modest eruption, but the SO2 cloud produced seems to have been relatively long-lived. Part of this cloud appears to have circumnavigated the globe in 5-6 days, eventually returning close to its point of origin. Other parts of the cloud moved across Russia, Alaska and Canada. A composite plot of TOMS data for August 18-23 is also available.

Mt. St. Helens, Washington

Aug 7, 1980

None detected


1

One of a series of lava dome destruction events at Mt St Helens after dome growth commenced in June 1980.

Mt. St. Helens, Washington

Jul 22, 1980

None detected


1

One of a series of lava dome destruction events at Mt St Helens after dome growth commenced in June 1980.

Krafla, Iceland

Jul 10, 1980

Jul 11-17

None detected

7

Local times of TOMS overpasses are given in brackets. Due to the high latitude of the eruption, it was detected in more than one orbit on some days.

Mt. St. Helens, Washington

Jun 12, 1980

Jun 13

Jun 13

1


Mt. St. Helens, Washington

May 25, 1980

May 25

May 25

1


Mt. St. Helens, Washington

May 18, 1980

May 18-23

May 18-21

5-6

Data gap over western and central USA on May 21.

Makushin, Aleutian Islands

May 1, 1980





Bulusan, Philippines

Feb 7, 1980

None detected


1


Nyamuragira, Zaire

Jan 30, 1980



~18


Sierra Negra, Galápagos Islands

Nov 13, 1979

Nov 14-15

None detected

~24


Karkar, Papua New Guinea

May 30, 1979

Ozone: May 29

May 30-31

3

Ozone anomaly on May 29 indicates low-level SO2 emissions, prior to minor eruptions of ash on May 30-31.

Soufriere St Vincent, West Indies

Apr 17, 1979

None detected


1


Soufriere St Vincent, West Indies

Apr 13, 1979



1


Karkar, Papua New Guinea

Mar 8, 1979

Mar 8

Ozone: Mar 7

Mar 8

2

Ozone anomaly on Mar 7 indicates low-level SO2 emissions. Some separation of ash and SO2 is apparent on Mar 8. Note the prominent sunglint signal over the ocean north and south of New Guinea in AI data on Mar 8 - the ash cloud from Karkar is over land.

Cerro Azul, Galápagos Islands

Jan - Feb 1979

Feb 1-12


11

No data available for Feb 9.

Ambrym, Vanuatu

December 5, 1978




Effusive eruption of Ambrym.

Ambrym, Vanuatu

Nov 6, 1978




SO2 degassing from Ambrym.


Nimbus-7 TOMS activated Oct 31, 1978