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Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory (Code 614)

Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Galleries

Sulfur Dioxide Image Galleries

TOMS images (1979-2005) | AIRS images (2003-present) | OMI images (2004-present) | OMPS images (May 2012-present) | TROPOMI images

AIRS Volcanic Images Archive at JPL

AIRS Volcanic Image Archive

Here we present volcanic eruption images generated from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. AIRS is a hyperspectral imager on the EOS/Aqua satellite, launched in May 2002, and its ~13.5 km footprint provides higher spatial resolution than TOMS. As an infrared sensor it also produces nighttime images of volcanic clouds, unlike TOMS. AIRS volcanic cloud studies are a collaborative effort between the TOMS group and the Atmospheric Spectroscopy Laboratory (L. Larrabee Strow, Director) in the Department of Physics at UMBC. The list will be populated over time and quantitative retrievals will be added when available.

Images presented in the SO2 column below are either bias difference images (in Kelvin) or quantitative SO2 retrievals (in Dobson Units [DU] or Milli atm cm). The former are generated by first calculating the brightness temperature difference (BTD) between the observed AIRS profiles (containing the volcanic signal) and profiles generated from European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) model data, and then calculating the difference in this bias between 2 AIRS channels - one sensitive to SO2 and the other insensitive. The larger the bias difference, the stronger the volcanic signal. Images in the Ash/Aerosols column similarly show bias difference images produced using channels sensitive to ash and sulfate aerosol, or quantitative ash retrievals. A triangular symbol marks the location of the source volcano. For further information please contact us.

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Days tracked


Aoba, Vanuatu

Nov 25, 2017

Mar 24 0150
Mar 24 1343
Mar 25 0155
Mar 25 1426


Eruption started on Mar 25.

Agung, Bali, Java, Indonesia

Nov 25, 2017

Nov 27 (w/MODIS)
Nov 27
Nov 28
Nov 29
Nov 30


Eruption started on Nov 25 sending ash up to 4 km. The center of mass height is up ot 8 km on Monday, Dec 4.

Pavlof, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

March 29, 2016

Mar 28 day
Mar 28 night
Mar 29


Erupted on Mar 27 at about 4pm. Ash went up to 7-9 km, based on CALIOP data, with a 400 mile long plume to the NE over Alaska.

Calbuco, Chile

April 23, 2015

Apr 23 day
Apr 24 day
Apr 25 day
Apr 26 day
Apr 27 day
Apr 24 night
Apr 25 night
Apr 26 night
Apr 27 night


Calbuco volcano, in central Chile, began erupting on April 22, 2015 at approximately 2138 UTC with a second eruption at 0408 UTC on April 23, 2015. AIRS and OMPS provided the best plume coverage for volcanic SO2 and mass estimates are 0.2 Tg and 0.24 Tg respectively, in the first overpasses following the eruption. A CALIPSO overpass on April 23, 2015 shows that the plume reached an altitude of 17-19 km before being transported to the northeast towards Buenos Aires by ambient meteorology.

Pavlof, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

November 12, 2014

Nov 15 day
Nov 16 day
Nov 16 night


Eruption began on Nov 12 and on the 15th, the ash clouds were high enough to disrupt air traffic.

Bárðabunga, Iceland

August 31, 2014

Sep 8 2253 UTC
Sep 9 0123 UTC
Sep 9 0617 UTC
Sep 9 0759 UTC
Sep 9 0929 UTC


Bárðabunga erupted on Aug 31 between 0300-0445 UTC. The eruption occured 40km N/NE of the central vent location.

Sangiang Api, Lesser Sunda Islands

May 30, 2014

May 30

May 30


Erupted on May 30, sending volcanic ash at least up to 12 miles. AIRS sees 21.1614 kilotons fo SO2.

Kelut, Java, Indonesia

February 13, 2014

Feb 13 Feb 14


It was a short-lived eruption on Feb 13, 2014, around 1615 UTC with a mixture of gas, ash and water. A plume moved west over the Indian Ocean.

Etna, Sicily, Italy

December 3, 2013

Dec 3 asc
Dec 3 des


Eruption started on Nov 23rd and is continuing.

Tolbachik, Kamchatka, Russian Federation

November 27, 2012

Dec 13


Eruption started on Nov 27th and is continuing to this day, Dec 19th.

Etna, Sicily, Italy

March 5, 2013

Mar 5 night
Mar 5 day


About 8 kilotons of SO2 emitted at night and about 1.4 kilotons in the day.

Merapi, Java, Indonesia

November 2-14, 2010

Nov 2-14


The eruption began on October 25, 2010. On November 4, spewed ash up to 5 km.

Grimsvotn, Iceland

November 2, 2004

Nov 2
From Fred Prata

None detected


The eruption began on November 1, 2004.

Manam, Papua New Guinea

October 24, 2004

Oct 24

Oct 24 (0400 UT)


Gas and ash emissions from an eruption on October 24, during which pyroclastic flows entered the ocean (Manam is a small island).

Asama, Japan

September 1, 2004

Sep 1 (1554 UT)

None detected


Small gas cloud from an eruption at around 1100UT on September 1.

Galeras, Colombia

August 12, 2004

Aug 12 (0630 UT)

Aug 12 (0630 UT)


Emissions from a small eruption on August 12.

Bromo, Indonesia

June 8, 2004

Jun 9-10

None detected


Emissions from an eruption on June 8.

Shiveluch, Kamchatka

May 10, 2004

May 10


Little SO2 apparent.

Nyamuragira, DR Congo

May 8, 2004

May 8-15

May 8 (2300 UT)

7 (to date)

Some SO2 may be sourced from Nyiragongo, which is also currently active.

Bezymianny, Kamchatka

January 14, 2004

Jan 14 (0206 UT)

Jan 14 (0206 UT)


Small cloud produced by an eruption at around 2300UT on January 13.

Soufriere Hills, Montserrat

July 13, 2003

Jul 13-14 (0506 UT)


This SO2 cloud was produced by explosions at the climax of a major dome collapse on July 12. Little ash was apparent in the cloud.