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Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory (Code 614)

Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Galleries

Sulfur Dioxide Image Galleries

historic TOMS images (1979-2005) | AIRS images (2003-now) | OMI images (2004-now) | TROPOMI images(2019-now) | N20OMPS images(2021-now)

OMPS Volcanic SO2 Image Archive

This archive is not an exhaustive list of all volcanic emissions detected by OMPS. Particularly large or otherwise interesting events will be posted here as time permits.

Images presented in the SO2 column will typically display retrievals from the current operational SO2 algorithm. In some cases, offline experimental algorithms may be implemented. Units are milli-atm-cm, also known as Dobson Units (DU), where 1 milli-atm-cm = 1 DU = 2.68x1016 molecules cm-2 at STP (0o degs C, 1013.25 hPa). Images in the Ash/Aerosols column show the OMPS Aerosol Index (AI), which is positive for UV-absorbing aerosols such as volcanic ash, and can be negative for non-UV absorbing aerosols such as sulfate. Note that the scale used varies between plots. For further information please contact us.

Choose a year:
| 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022 | 2023 | 2024 |


Daily images


   ↓2024 ↓  
Ruang, Indonesia
Apr 30
Ruang erupted (for the second time in 2 weeks since April 17) on April 29 at ~1900 UTC. Maximum plume altitude seems to be 25 km.
Reykjanes, Iceland
Mar 17 NRT
Reykjanes had the most powerful eruption in the last 3 months on March 17 at 1048 (UT).
   ↓2023 ↓  
Ulawun, Papau, New Guinea
Nov 21 NRT
Ulawun, Papau New Guinea's tallest volcano, began erupting on November 20, 2023 sending ash to about 15 km.
Shiveluch, Kamchatka
Apr 11 NRT
Apr 11 Ash NRT
Apr 12
Shiveluch began erupting on April 11, 2023 sending ash to about 20 km.
   ↓2022 ↓  
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Nov 28
Mauna Loa began erupting at midnight on November 27 (11:30pm local mean time (MLT) in Hawaii with earthquakes, lava flows in main caldera and fissures in the NE rift zone. See SO2 mass time series plot. On Nov 28 (1:40pm LMT): ~0.19 Tg SO2 ~NE from the eruption. The eruption vents are at ~4km altitude and the plume seems to be ~4-8 km.
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Nov 30(3km)
The TROPOMI SO2 map for November 30 is attached (~23:00 UTC on Nov 30), assuming a 8 km plume altitude. Clearly there's been a wind shift since Nov 29, and the Hilo radiosonde (00 UTC on Dec 1) showed a complex wind field with significant vertical wind shear and low wind speeds at some altitudes. Stagnant/light winds would explain the very high SO2 columns (~500 DU) observed over Mauna Loa. Difficult to estimate a flux in these conditions, but just based on the total observed SO2 mass in this image (~200 kt) the SO2 flux must be in the 100-200 kt/day range. This image uses a plume height of 3 km.
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Nov 30(8km)
The TROPOMI SO2 map for November 30 is attached (~23:00 UTC on Nov 30), assuming a 8 km plume altitude. Clearly there's been a wind shift since Nov 29, and the Hilo radiosonde (00 UTC on Dec 1) showed a complex wind field with significant vertical wind shear and low wind speeds at some altitudes. Stagnant/light winds would explain the very high SO2 columns (~500 DU) observed over Mauna Loa. Difficult to estimate a flux in these conditions, but just based on the total observed SO2 mass in this image (~200 kt) the SO2 flux must be in the 100-200 kt/day range. This image uses a plume height of 8km.
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Dec 03(3km)
Dec 3 (~23:50 UTC): TROPOMI retries the largest SO2 columns over Mauna Loa (>1000 DU!). This is due to essentially calm winds above the summit (see attached Hilo sonde - note also the very dry airmass aloft above the inversion), so the SO2 is just accumulating over the Big Island. In the TROPOMI image, the SO2 to the south of ~18 N is old SO2 from the previous day(s), whereas we could perhaps assume that most of the SO2 mass over the Big Island (~70-100 kt) was emitted in the preceding 24 hours. This image uses a plume height of 3 km.
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai, Tonga, Pacific
Jan 14
Jan 15
Jan 16
Jan 17
Jan 18
Jan 23
An underwater volcano, Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) erupted explosively between 1500 and 1530 UTC on 13 January 2022 sending SO2 and ash up to 20 km. The second eruption started at 04:00 UTC on Jan 15 and produced a multi-layered eruption cloud with stratospheric injection up to a maximum altitude of ~48 km (based on cloud temperatures and OMPS Limb profiler data) and a lower-level umbrella cloud around the tropopause. Based on the westward dispersion of the SO2, most of the SO2 was injected into the stratospheric cloud. The latest OMPS-LP data also indicate aerosol heights of 28-30 km. It appears that the high-level stratospheric cloud was no longer being actively fed by ~10:00 UTC (possibly earlier), so injecting 400 kt SO2 to 28 km over 6 hours is a reasonable first guess. The tropopause-level eruption continued for longer but did not seem to contain much SO2.
   ↓2021 ↓  
Nyiragongo, DR Congo
Mar 23
Mt Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo began erupting on Saturday, May 22, sending lava flows down the mountain toward the city of Goma and entering the city on May 23. At least 15 people have been killed. The lava flows have destroyed numerous houses. In an effort to evacuate the area, 3,000-5,000 residents fled to the nearby country of Rwanda. Volcanic SO2 emissions have declined since the Maww eruption - this is consistent with magma draining from the volcano into fissures on the flanks.
La Soufrière, St Vincent
Apr 10 so2
Apr 10 aer.
La Soufrière began erupting on April 9 at 1241 UTC and again at 1900 UTC. The last time was 42 years ago.
Reykjanes, Iceland
Mar 22
Reykjanes began erupting on March 19 for the first time in 1200 years.
Etna, Sicily, Italy
Feb 14 - Mar 17
Etna began erupting on February 14, 2021 sending rivers of lava down the southeast side of the volcano and ashes on nearby towns.
   ↓2020 ↓  
Nishinoshima, Japan
Jun 30
Nishinishima current eruption began on June 24.
Anak Krakatau, Java
Apr 11
Anak Krakatau began erupting the night of April 10, 2020.
Taal, Philippines
Jan 13
Taal erupted on Sunday, January 12 sending ash 9 miles (14.5 km) into the atmosphere.
   ↓2019 ↓  
Raikoke, Kurile Islands, Kamchatka
Jun 22
Jun 23
Jun 24
Jun 25
New movie!
Raikoke erupted on June 22, 2019 at 4am local time. Ash reached 13-17 km.
   ↓2018 ↓  
Sierra Negra, Galápagos Islands
Jun 26
Fernandina, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Jun 17
Erupted on Jun 17, around 11 UTC and drifted > 250 km WNW.
Fuego, Guatemala
Jun 3_SO2
Jun 3 AI
The eruption started around 1600 UTS, producing pyroclastic flows that swept over the SE flank of the volano and claimed at least 25 lives. An ash cloud was detected at about 15 km. Upper tropospheric SO2 with max loading of about 0.02 Tg (20 kt). Largest eruption since October 1974.
Kilauea, Hawaii
May 17 (3km)
May 17 (5km)
May 22
Jun 3
Jun 4
The explosive eruption at the Kilauea summit occurred near dawn local time (1420 UTC) on May 17. The Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center indicates that the eruption reached about 30,000 feet. SNPP/OMPS SO2 mass is about 5 kilotons. Ash signature is not evident in satellite imagery.
Kilauea, Hawaii
May 8
The eruption started on May 3 and now has at least 14 fissures in the mid-eastern riff.
Sinabung, Indonesia
Feb 19_a
Feb 19 b
Feb 20
Feb 21
The eruption started on Feb 19 at 0135 UTC. SO2 plume went to 14-16 km with some at 18 km.
Mayon, Philipines
Jan 22
Jan 23
Mayon erupted at 0225 and 1243 on Jan 22 sending ash plunes to 1.3 and 5 km, respectively.
   ↓2017 ↓  
Agung, Bali, Java
Nov 27 0408
Nov 27 0550
Nov 29 0511
The eruption started on Nov 25, sending ash up to 4 km, with some being at 9 km by Monday.
Tinakula, Solomon Islands
Oct 21
2 eruptions occured on Oct 20 at 1920 and 2340 UTC sending ash to 10.7 km (35,000 feet).
Fernandina, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Sep 5
Erupted on Sep 4, around 12:25 UTC. A low ash content gas plume rose about 4 km above the crater.
Bogoslov, Aleutian Islands, Alaska
Mar 28
Erupted on May 28, around 22:15 UTC. The eruption lasted about an hour sending a plume of ash at least 10 km and temporarily triggering an aviation alert. This image shows an early detection of the eruption cloud with about 60 DU of SO2 at 23:35 UTC. The SO2 cloud subsequently dispersed to the NE.
Bogoslov, Aleutian Islands, Alaska
Mar 17
Erupted in 3 phases on March 17 at 0630 UTC, the first one being the most energetic.
Turrialba, Costa Rica
Apr 21
Recent eruption emitted 4.1 kilotons of ash.
Bogoslov, Aleutian Islands, Alaska
Mar 8
There have been many eruptions since late December 2015. This eruption sent ash to about 10.6 km. The island has tripled in size.
   ↓2016 ↓  
Pavlof, Aleutian Islands, Alaska
Mar 28
The eruption began aout 4pm on March 27th, sending ash up to about 37,000 ft (11,300 m). The plume was about 400 miles long toward the NE - the intereior of Alaska.
   ↓2015 ↓  
Etna, Sicily, Italy
PCA algo
Dec 3
Dec 4
Following a day of increased seismic activity, an eruption began at Mt. Etna on December 3, 2015. The eruption was characterized by lava fountaining between 1-2 km for two days and ash plumes between 7-8 km on December 4th. By December 5th, eruption activity was decreasing, with Strombolian and effusive activity continuing for a few days.
Calbuco, Chile
Apr 23
Apr 24
Apr 24_AI
Apr 25
Apr 25_AI Apr 26
Apr 27
Calbuco volcano, in central Chile, began erupting on April 22, 2015 at approximately 2138 UTC with a second eruption at 0408 UTC on April 23, 2015. AIRS and OMPS provided the best plume coverage for volcanic SO2 and mass estimates are 0.2 Tg and 0.24 Tg, respectively, in the first overpasses following the eruption. A CALIPSO overpass on April 23, 2015 shows that the plume reached an altitude of 17-19 km before being transported to the northeast towards Buenos Aires by ambient meteorology.
   ↓2014 ↓  
Fogo, Cape Verde Islands
Nov 24
Nov 27
Nov 28
Nov 29
Fogo began erupting on the morning of Nov 23. The eruption started at a vent on the WSW part of the cone. On the 24th, a sulfur dioxide cloud was observed 220 km NW of Fogo at an altitude of 9.1 km by the Toulouse VAAC. More detailed info here.
Pavlof, Alaska, USA
Nov 16 Nov 16_AI
The eruption that started on Nov 12, intensified on the 15th. Ash cloud at about 25,000 feet (about 7,600 m) above sea level and 120 miles (196 km) downwind.
Ontake, Japan
Sep 27
Ontake eruptsd on Sep 27th whtile many hikers were on it. Local concentrations of SO2 could be toxic.
Bárðarbunga, Iceland
Aug 31
Sep 1
Bárðarbunga (on Iceland) began erupting on Aug 31 between 0300-0445 UTC. The eruption occured 40 km N/NE of the central vent location. There was no ash dispersal associated with this event.
Kelut, Java, Indonesia
Feb 14 Feb 14_AI

Feb 15 Feb 15_AI

Feb 16
Feb 17
Feb 18
Feb 14
Feb 16
Feb 17
This eruption started on Feb 13 between 16:15-16:30 UTC and stopped before 19 UTC. It was a mixture of SO2 gas, ash and water with a plume initially moving westward. OMI/OMPS estimated SO2 released: 150-300 kT (0.15-0.30 Tg), mostly during initial explosion. Very high ash loading detected on Feb 14 (UV Aerosol Index > 10). SO2/ash injection heights were 17-26 km with the bulk of the injection at 19 km, estimated from the CALIPSO overpass at 18 UTC. An additional SO2 source was introduced on 02/17/2014, which mixed with the initial Kelut SO2 plume. Here is a more detailed explanation.
   ↓2013 ↓  
Etna, Siciliy, Italy
Nov 23
Nov 23_traj
Nov 23_AI
Etna began erupting on Nov 23.
Pavlof, Alaska, USA
May 17
May 18
May 19
May 20
May 18-21
Eruption began May 15th.
Manam, New Guinea
Apr 16, 2013
   ↓2012 ↓  
Copahue, Chile
Dec 23, 2012
Eruption began Dec 22, 2012. Here is a visible image from MODIS.
Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
May 8
1138-1143 UT
Outgassing from Mauna Kea, Hawaii.
Nyiragongo, DR Congo
May 8
1138-1143 UT

May 8
1127-1309 UT
First SO2 images from OMPS!
   ↓2011 ↓  

OMPS launched on board Suomi NPP October 28, 2011