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Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory (Code 614)

Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Galleries

Sulfur Dioxide Image Galleries

TOMS images (1979-2005) | AIRS images (2003-present) | OMI images (2004-present) | OMPS images (May 2012-present)

OMPS Volcanic SO2 Image Archive

This archive is not an exhaustive list of all volcanic emissions detected by OMPS. Particularly large or otherwise interesting events will be posted here as time permits.

Images presented in the SO2 column will typically display retrievals from the current operational SO2 algorithm. In some cases, offline experimental algorithms may be implemented. Units are milli-atm-cm, also known as Dobson Units (DU), where 1 milli-atm-cm = 1 DU = 2.68x1016 molecules cm-2 at STP (0o degs C, 1013.25 hPa). Images in the Ash/Aerosols column show the OMPS Aerosol Index (AI), which is positive for UV-absorbing aerosols such as volcanic ash, and can be negative for non-UV absorbing aerosols such as sulfate. Note that the scale used varies between plots. For further information please contact us.

Choose a year:
| 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 |

Or select a volcano:



Daily images




   ↓2017 ↓        
Bogoslov, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Mar 28, 2017
Mar 28
Erupted on May 28, around 22:15 UTC. The eruption lasted about an hour sending a plume of ash at least 10 km and temporarily triggering an aviation alert. This image shows an early detection of the eruption cloud with about 60 DU of SO2 at 23:35 UTC. The SO2 cloud subsequently dispersed to the NE.
Bogoslov, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Mar 17, 2017
Mar 17
Erupted in 3 phases on March 17 at 0630 UTC, the first one being the most energetic.
Turrialba, Costa Rica Apr 21, 2017
Apr 21
Recent eruption emitted 4.1 kilotons of ash.
Bogoslov, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Mar 8, 2017
Mar 8
There have been many eruptions since late December 2015. This eruption sent ash to about 10.6 km. The island has tripled in size.
   ↓2016 ↓        
Pavlof, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Mar 28, 2016
Mar 28
The eruption began aout 4pm on March 27th, sending ash up to about 37,000 ft (11,300 m). The plume was about 400 miles long toward the NE - the intereior of Alaska.
   ↓2015 ↓        
Etna, Sicily, Italy Dec 3-4, 2015
PCA algo
Dec 3
Dec 4
Following a day of increased seismic activity, an eruption began at Mt. Etna on December 3, 2015. The eruption was characterized by lava fountaining between 1-2 km for two days and ash plumes between 7-8 km on December 4th. By December 5th, eruption activity was decreasing, with Strombolian and effusive activity continuing for a few days.
Calbuco, Chile Apr 22, 2015
Apr 24
Apr 25
Apr 26
Apr 23
Apr 24
Apr 25
Apr 26
Apr 27
Apr 24
Apr 25
Calbuco volcano, in central Chile, began erupting on April 22, 2015 at approximately 2138 UTC with a second eruption at 0408 UTC on April 23, 2015. AIRS and OMPS provided the best plume coverage for volcanic SO2 and mass estimates are 0.2 Tg and 0.24 Tg, respectively, in the first overpasses following the eruption. A CALIPSO overpass on April 23, 2015 shows that the plume reached an altitude of 17-19 km before being transported to the northeast towards Buenos Aires by ambient meteorology.
   ↓2014 ↓        
Fogo, Cape Verde Islands Nov 24, 2014
Nov 24
Nov 27
Nov 28
Nov 29
Fogo began erupting on the morning of Nov 23. The eruption started at a vent on the WSW part of the cone. On the 24th, a sulfur dioxide cloud was observed 220 km NW of Fogo at an altitude of 9.1 km by the Toulouse VAAC. More detailed info here.
Pavlof, Alaska, USA Nov 16, 2014
Nov 16
Nov 16
The eruption that started on Nov 12, intensified on the 15th. Ash cloud at about 25,000 feet (about 7,600 m) above sea level and 120 miles (196 km) downwind.
Ontake, Japan Sep 27, 2014
Sep 27
Ontake eruptsd on Sep 27th whtile many hikers were on it. Local concentrations of SO2 could be toxic.
Bárðarbunga, Iceland Aug 31, 2014
Aug 31
Sep 1
Bárðarbunga (on Iceland) began erupting on Aug 31 between 0300-0445 UTC. The eruption occured 40 km N/NE of the central vent location. There was no ash dispersal associated with this event.
Kelut, Java, Indonesia Feb 13, 2014
Feb 14
Feb 15
Feb 16
Feb 17
Feb 18
Feb 19
Feb 14
Feb 16
Feb 17
Feb 14 Feb 15
This eruption started on Feb 13 between 16:15-16:30 UTC and stopped before 19 UTC. It was a mixture of SO2 gas, ash and water with a plume initially moving westward. OMI/OMPS estimated SO2 released: 150-300 kT (0.15-0.30 Tg), mostly during initial explosion. Very high ash loading detected on Feb 14 (UV Aerosol Index > 10). SO2/ash injection heights were 17-26 km with the bulk of the injection at 19 km, estimated from the CALIPSO overpass at 18 UTC. An additional SO2 source was introduced on 02/17/2014, which mixed with the initial Kelut SO2 plume. Here is a more detailed explanation.
   ↓2013 ↓        
Etna, Siciliy, Italy Nov 23, 2013
Nov 23
Nov 23
Nov 23
Etna began erupting on Nov 23.
Pavlof, Alaska, USA May 14, 2012
May 18-21
May 17
May 18
May 19
May 20
Eruption began May 15th.
Manam, New Guinea May 14, 2012
Apr 16, 2013
   ↓2012 ↓        
Copahue, Chile May 14, 2012
Dec 23, 2012
Eruption began Dec 22, 2012. Here is a visible image from MODIS.
Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA May 14, 2012
May 8
1138-1143 UT
Outgassing from Mauna Kea, Hawaii.
Nyiragongo, DR Congo May 6, 2012
May 8
1138-1143 UT
May 8
1127-1309 UT
First SO2 images from OMPS!
   ↓2011 ↓        

OMPS launched on board Suomi NPP October 28, 2011