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Sulfur Dioxide Image Galleries

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N20OMPS Volcanic SO2 Image Archive

This archive is not an exhaustive list of all volcanic emissions detected by N20OMPS. Particularly large or otherwise interesting events will be posted here as time permits.

Images presented in the SO2 column will typically display retrievals from the current operational SO2 algorithm. In some cases, offline experimental algorithms may be implemented. Units are milli-atm-cm, also known as Dobson Units (DU), where 1 milli-atm-cm = 1 DU = 2.68x1016 molecules cm-2 at STP (0o degs C, 1013.25 hPa). Images in the Ash/Aerosols column show the N20OMPS Aerosol Index (AI), which is positive for UV-absorbing aerosols such as volcanic ash, and can be negative for non-UV absorbing aerosols such as sulfate. Note that the scale used varies between plots. For further information please contact us.

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| 2021 | 2022 |



Daily images




   ↓2022 ↓        
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai, Tonga January 7, 2022
Jan 16
Jan 17
Jan 18
Jan 19
Jan 19*
(*Slant column density map) An underwater volcano, Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) erupted explosively between 1500 and 1530 UTC on 13 January 2022 sending SO2 and ash up to 20 km. The second eruption started at 04:00 UTC on Jan 15 and produced a multi-layered eruption cloud with stratospheric injection up to a maximum altitude of ~30 km (based on cloud temperatures) and a lower-level umbrella cloud around the tropopause. Based on the westward dispersion of the SO2, most of the SO2 was injected into the stratospheric cloud. The latest OMPS-LP data also indicate aerosol heights of 28-30 km. It appears that the high-level stratospheric cloud was no longer being actively fed by ~10:00 UTC (possibly earlier), so injecting 400 kt SO2 to 28 km over 6 hours is a reasonable first guess. The tropopause-level eruption continued for longer but did not seem to contain much SO2.
Wolf Volcano, Galapagos Islands January 7, 2022
Jan 9
Jan 8
Jan 7
Wolf volcano, the tallest mountain on the Galapagos Islands, erupted late in the day locally spewing ash up to 3793 meters (12,444 ft).
   ↓2021 ↓