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Sulfur Dioxide Image Galleries

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TROPOMI Volcanic SO2 Image Archive

This archive is not an exhaustive list of all volcanic emissions detected by TROPOMI. Particularly large or otherwise interesting events will be posted here as time permits.

Images presented in the SO2 column will typically display retrievals from the current operational SO2 algorithm. In some cases, offline experimental algorithms may be implemented. Units are milli-atm-cm, also known as Dobson Units (DU), where 1 milli-atm-cm = 1 DU = 2.68x1016 molecules cm-2 at STP (0o degs C, 1013.25 hPa). Images in the Ash/Aerosols column show the TROPOMI Aerosol Index (AI), which is positive for UV-absorbing aerosols such as volcanic ash, and can be negative for non-UV absorbing aerosols such as sulfate. Note that the scale used varies between plots. For further information please contact us.

Choose a year:
| 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022 | 2023 |


Daily images


   ↓2023 ↓  
Ulawun, Papau, New Guinea
Nov 21
Ulawun, Papau New Guinea's largest volcano, began erupting on November 20, send ash to 15 km.
Shiveluch, Kamchatka
Apr 11
Apr 12
Shiveluch began erupting on April 11, 2023 sending ash to about 20 km.
   ↓2022 ↓  
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Nov 28
Mauna Loa began erupting at midnight on Nobember 27 (11:30pm local mean time (LMT) in Hawaii) with earthquakes, lava flows in main caldera and fissures in the NE rift zone. See SO2 mass time series plot. On Nov 28 (1:40pm LMT): ~0.19Tg SO2 ~NE from the eruption. The eruption vents are at ~4 km altitude and the plume altitude seems to be ~4-8 km.
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Nov 30
Nov 30 (~1pm LMT): There's been a wind shift since Nov 29, and the Hilo radiosonde (00 UTC on Dec 1) showed a complex wind field with significant vertical wind shear and low wind speeds at some altitudes. Stagnant/light winds would explain the very high SO2 columns (~500 DU) observed over Mauna Loa. Difficult to estimate a flux in these conditions, but just based on the total observed SO2 mass in this image (~200 kt) the SO2 flux must be in the 100-200 kt/day range.
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Dec 01
Dec 1: (noon-1:47pm LMT). There was a well-defined plume drifting ~SW from the eruption. Estimated SO2 fluxes of ~70,000 tons/day, i.e., lower than previous days. Of course, the satellite measurements could be underestimating the flux.
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Dec 03
(~23:50 UTC): TROPOMI retries the largest SO2 columns over Mauna Loa (>1000 DU!). This is due to essentially calm winds above the summit (see attached Hilo sonde - note also the very dry airmass aloft above the inversion), so the SO2 is just accumulating over the Big Island. In the TROPOMI image, the SO2 to the south of ~18 deg N is old SO2 from the previous day(s), whereas we could perhaps assume that most of the SO2 mass over the Big Island (~70-100 kt) was emitted in the preceding 24 hours.
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Dec 08
Christoph Kern/HVO reported much reduced SO2 emissions of 31 +/- 9 kt/d on and this is consistent with the satellite data that show much reduced SO2 columns; the maximum SO2 column is two orders of magnitude lower than on previous days. TROPOMI lower tropospheric [TRL] SO2 column shows that a significant mass of SO2 has been advected north of Hawaii. Based on transects through the SO2 plume west of Mauna Loa, and using a wind speed of 14 m/s (as reported by HVO), the estimated SO2 flux is similar to the ground-based measurement (~32 kt/d).
Fagradalsfjall, Iceland
Aug 4
Fagradalsfjall volcano began erupting on Wednesday, August 3.
Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai, Tonga, Pacific
Jan 14
Jan 17
Jan 18
Jan 19
Jan 20
Jan 21
An underwater volcano, Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) erupted explosively between 1500 and 1530 UTC on 13 January 2022 sending SO2 and ash up to 20 km. The second eruption started at 04:00 UTC on Jan 15 and produced a multi-layered eruption cloud with stratospheric injection up to a maximum altitude of ~48 km (based on cloud temperatures and OMPS Limb profiler data) and a lower-level umbrella cloud around the tropopause. Based on the westward dispersion of the SO2, most of the SO2 was injected into the stratospheric cloud. The latest OMPS-LP data also indicate aerosol heights of 28-30 km. It appears that the high-level stratospheric cloud was no longer being actively fed by ~10:00 UTC (possibly earlier), so injecting 400 kt SO2 to 28 km over 6 hours is a reasonable first guess. The tropopause-level eruption continued for longer but did not seem to contain much SO2.
Wolf Volcano, Galapagos Islands
Jan 8
Jan 7
Wolf volcano, the tallest mountain on the Galapagos Islands, erupted late in the day locally spewing ash up to 3793 meters (12,444 ft).
   ↓2021 ↓  
Fukutoku-Oba-No-Ba, Marianas Islands, Japan
Aug 13
Aug 14
A new island is created in Japan with an ash cloud rising to 20 km. Fukutoku-Oba-No-Ba is a submarine volcano that erupted on Aug 13, 2021 2100 UTC.
Nyiragongo, DR Congo
Mar 23
Mt Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo began erupting on Saturday, May 22, sending lava flows down the mountain toward the city of Goma and entering the city on May 23. At least 15 people have been killed. The lava flows have destroyed numerous houses. In an effort to evacuate the area, 3,000-5,000 residents fled to the nearby country of Rwanda. Volcanic SO2 emissions have declined since the Maww eruption - this is consistent with magma draining from the volcano into fissures on the flanks.
Soufrière, St Vincent Island
Apr 9
Apr 10
Apr 11
Soufrière began erupting at 1241 UTC and again at 1900 UTC. The last time was 42 years.
Reykjanes, Iceland
Mar 22
Reykjanes began erupting on March 19 for the first time in 1200 years.
   ↓2020 ↓  
Anak Krakatau, Java
Apr 11
Apr 12
Apr 13
Anak Krakatau started erupting on during the night of April 10, 2020.
   ↓2019 ↓  
Whakaari, White Island, New Zealand
Dec 11
Eruption started around 0209 UTC (0209pm local time) on 12/9/2019 with ash rising to 3.6 km (12,000 ft). 22 tourists died. See "Volcano" documentary on Netflix.
Ubinas, Peru
Jul 24
Jul 19-22
Eruption started around 0735 UTC (0335 local time) on 7/19/2019 with ash risoing to 12.2 km (40,000 ft). Erupting again on 7/23/2019 with ash emissions rising to 9.3 km (31,000 feet).
Ulawun, Papau New Guinea
Jun 26-Jul 15
Eruption started around 0700 UTC (0300 local time) on 6/26/2019 with ash rising to 19 km (62,000 ft).
Raikoke, Kurile Islands, Kamchatka
Jun 22
Jun 23
Jun 24
Jun 21-Jul 16
Eruption started at 1750 UTC on 6/21/2019. Emissions rose to 13.1 km (43,000 feet).